Susa ( SOO-sə; Middle Elamite: 𒀸𒋗𒊺𒂗, romanized: Šušen; Middle and Neo-Elamite: 𒋢𒋢𒌦, romanized: Šušun; Neo-Elamite and Achaemenid Elamite: 𒀸𒋗𒐼𒀭, romanized: Šušán; Achaemenid Elamite: 𒀸𒋗𒐼, romanized: Šušá; Persian: شوش Šuš [ʃuʃ]; Hebrew: שׁוּשָׁן Šūšān; Greek: Σοῦσα Soûsa; Syriac: ܫܘܫ Šuš; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 Sūš or 𐭱𐭥𐭮 Šūs; Old Persian: 𐏂𐎢𐏁𐎠 Çūšā) is a city in the lower Zagros Mountains of Iran, located about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. This ancient city served as the capital of Elam and the Achaemenid Empire, and remained a strategic center during the Parthian and Sasanian periods. Today, the site consists of three archaeological mounds, covering an area of around one square kilometer, and the modern Iranian town of Shush is located on the site of ancient Susa.
Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements in the region, with the foundation of a settlement dating back to 4395 BC. The city has a rich history and is mentioned in the very earliest Sumerian records. Susa appears in the Hebrew Bible by the name Shushan, mainly in the Book of Esther, but also in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel. According to these texts, Nehemiah lived in Susa during the Babylonian captivity of the 6th century BC, while Esther became queen there, married to King Ahasuerus, and saved the Jews from genocide. A tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area, known as Shush-Daniel.
The site was examined in 1836 by Henry Rawlinson and then by A. H. Layard. In 1851, some modest excavation was done by William Loftus, accompanied by Fenwick Williams, who identified it as Susa. Among his finds was a jar containing around 110 coins, the earliest of which was dated to 697-98 AD. In 1885 and 1886, Marcel-Auguste Dieulafoy and Jane Dieulafoy began the first French excavations, discovering glazed bricks, column bases, and capitals from the palace of the Achaemenid kings. Almost all of the excavations at Susa, post-1885, were organized and authorized by the French government.
Jacques de Morgan conducted major excavations